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United States v. Stimler

United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit

July 7, 2017


          Argued on January 25, 2017

         On Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey (D.N.J. Nos. 3-14-cr-00287-005, 3-14-cr-00287-003 and 3-14-cr-00287-001) Honorable Freda L. Wolfson District Judge

          Nathan Lewin [Argued] Lewin & Lewin Gedalia M. Stern Counsel for Appellant Stimler

          Aidan P. O'Connor [Argued] Pashman Stein Walder Hayden Counsel for Appellant Goldstein

          Laura K. Gasiorowski Robert G. Stahl Stahl Farella Peter Goldberger [Argued] Counsel for Appellant Epstein

          Mark E. Coyne Norman Gross [Argued] Glenn J. Moramarco [Argued] Counsel for Appellee

          Before: CHAGARES, RESTREPO and ROTH, Circuit Judges


          ROTH, Circuit Judge

         Binyamin Stimler, Jay Goldstein, and Mendel Epstein are Orthodox Jewish rabbis who were charged with various kidnapping-related offenses, stemming from their involvement in a scheme through which they, along with others, [1] sought to assist Orthodox Jewish women to obtain divorces from recalcitrant husbands. After a jury trial, all three defendants were convicted of conspiracy to commit kidnapping. The defendants now appeal various rulings made by the District Court before, during, and after trial. Because we find no merit in any of the defendants' arguments, we will affirm all three convictions.

         I [2]

         In the Orthodox Jewish tradition, a married woman cannot obtain a religious divorce until her husband provides her with a contract called a "get" (pluralized as "gittin"), which must, in turn, be signed by an "eid, " or witness. A woman who attempts to leave her husband without obtaining a get becomes an "agunah" (pluralized as "agunot"), which subjects her to severe social ostracism within the Orthodox Jewish community. Agunot may seek relief in a "beth din, " a rabbinical court presided over by a panel of three rabbis. The beth din may then issue "psak kefiah, " or contempt orders authorizing sanctions, which include, but are not limited to, the use of force against a husband to secure a get. To assist an agunah to obtain a get is a "mitzvah, " or religious commandment of the Orthodox Jewish faith. Starting in at least 2009, Stimler, Epstein, and Goldstein participated in the beth din process to help agunot obtain gittin. They worked with "tough guys" or "muscle men" in exchange for money to kidnap and torture husbands in order to coerce them to sign the gittin.

         In 2013, the FBI learned of the kidnapping ring and began investigating the rabbis. As part of this investigation, an FBI agent posed as an agunah and approached Epstein. The agent met with Epstein at his home in New Jersey. Epstein suggested that kidnapping would be appropriate in the agent's "situation, " promising that "what we're doing is basically gonna be kidnapping a guy for a couple of hours and beatin' him up and torturing him . . .."[3] One month after this meeting, Epstein and Goldstein found a potential location for the kidnapping. Epstein then convened a beth din at which he, Goldstein, and a third rabbi presided. Together, the rabbis issued a psak kefiah authorizing the use of force against the agent's "husband." Epstein and the agent subsequently planned the details, including the date, location, and manner of the kidnapping of the "husband." On the day of the kidnapping, a team of rabbis and "tough guys" assembled at the agreed-upon location. Goldstein and Stimler arrived in disguise and Stimler conducted counter-surveillance of the area.

         Once the kidnapping team had assembled, the FBI arrested them. Epstein and Stimler were each charged with one substantive kidnapping count, one count of attempted kidnapping, and one count of conspiracy to commit kidnapping. Goldstein was charged with two substantive kidnapping counts, one count of attempted kidnapping, and one count of conspiracy.

         During its preparation for trial, the government applied for a court order, pursuant to Section 2703(d) of the Stored Communications Act (SCA), compelling AT&T to turn over historic cell site location information (CSLI) generated by Goldstein's phone. CSLI is generated every time a cell phone user sends or receives a call or text message; when the call or message is routed through the nearest cell tower, the user's service provider generates and retains a record identifying the particular tower through which the communication was routed.[4] In more densely populated areas, cell towers are able to triangulate an individual's approximate location based on the individual's distance from the three nearest towers. Thus, while less precise than traditional GPS systems, historic CSLI records can nonetheless generate a rough profile of an individual's approximate movements based on the phone calls that individual makes over a period of time. The order for such records, covering a total of 57 days of Goldstein's location history, was issued by a magistrate judge on October 30, 2014.


         The defendants filed numerous pretrial motions before the District Court; we consider only the three which are relevant to this appeal. First, Goldstein moved to suppress the CSLI obtained pursuant to the SCA, arguing that cell phone users have a reasonable expectation of privacy in such metadata, implicating the Fourth Amendment's warrant requirement. The District Court denied Goldstein's motion, reasoning that collection of CSLI "does not involve physical intrusion upon [Goldstein's] property or any real time tracking information" and did not "concern the search or seizure of a cell phone, or the content of any communication."[5]

         Second, all three defendants sought dismissal of the indictment pursuant to the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA), arguing that the government's decision to prosecute them substantially burdened their sincerely held religious beliefs and was not the least restrictive means of furthering any compelling government interest. Stimler raised the additional argument that RFRA required him to be severed from the trial of Epstein and Goldstein. The District Court rejected these arguments, finding that the government's decision to prosecute the defendants did not substantially burden their religious exercise.[6] In the alternative, the District Court found that the government had a compelling interest in the uniform prosecution of kidnapping laws and that the prosecution of the defendants was the least restrictive way of achieving that interest.[7] The District Court summarily rejected Stimler's request for severance, reasoning that the joint prosecution was not a substantial burden and that "[t]here is nothing in [RFRA] which suggests that it can be used to argue for severance."[8]

         Third, the defendants sought to introduce evidence of their religious beliefs and, more broadly, of Orthodox Jewish law in order to negate the motive element of the kidnapping statute, or, in the alternative, to demonstrate consent on the part of the husbands. The District Court refused to admit such evidence, finding that it was irrelevant both to motive and to the affirmative defense of consent. In the alternative, the District Court held that the evidence would be unduly prejudicial under Rule 403 of the Federal Rules of Evidence, as it "would carry a significant potential for jury nullification."[9]

         At trial, the government introduced a variety of evidence against the defendants. As relevant here, the government introduced testimony from FBI agents placing Stimler and Goldstein at the site of the proposed kidnapping in a disguise. The agents stated that Stimler performed counter-surveillance at the site. The government also introduced the statements made about Goldstein by another rabbi at a beth din convened to determine the validity of a get obtained from one of the prior kidnappings. After both the government and the defense rested, the judge instructed the jury as to the elements of each charged offense and sequestered the jury for deliberations. On the fourth day of deliberations, the jury sent a question to the judge, inquiring whether failure to intervene could make an individual liable for kidnapping. The judge wrote back that, having interpreted the question to refer only to the substantive kidnapping counts, the answer was no. The defendants objected to this response, arguing that it implied that failure to intervene could support a conviction for the attempt and conspiracy charges.

         All three defendants were convicted. Stimler was sentenced to 39 months incarceration, Goldstein to 96 months, and Epstein to 120 months. They appealed. We consolidated the appeals for disposition.

         III [10]

         This appeal presents eight issues, not all of which apply to every defendant. As such, we treat each issue in turn, and note which defendants have raised which claims.


         We first address whether the District Court erred in denying Goldstein's[11] motion to suppress the CSLI evidence. Because the parties agree as to all the relevant facts and dispute only the legal implications thereof, our review is plenary.[12] Section 2703 of the SCA authorizes the government to "require a provider of electronic communication service . . . to disclose a record or other information pertaining to a subscriber to or customer of such service . . . when the governmental entity . . . obtains a court order for such disclosure . . .."[13] Such a court order "shall issue only if the governmental entity offers specific and articulable facts showing that there are reasonable grounds to believe" that the records "are relevant and material to an ongoing criminal investigation."[14] Notably, this "reasonable grounds" requirement is a lesser burden than the "probable cause" requirement of the Fourth Amendment.[15]

         Recognizing that the SCA permits precisely what the government here did, Goldstein argues that the SCA violates the Fourth Amendment insofar as it authorizes the government to require disclosure of historic CSLI without obtaining a warrant. To the extent that historic CSLI records allow the government to aggregate an individual's movement history over an indefinite period of time, Goldstein argues that the Supreme Court has suggested that individuals have a reasonable expectation of privacy in such information. In the alternative, Goldstein asserts that the government failed to meet even the relaxed "reasonable grounds" requirement of the SCA. In response to Goldstein's constitutional argument, the government rests primarily on the third-party doctrine, [16]arguing that cell phone users voluntarily turn over CSLI to their service providers. With respect to Goldstein's statutory arguments, the government maintains that the detailed descriptions of prior kidnappings allegedly committed and the identification of specific periods of interest provided "reasonable grounds" for disclosure.

         We do not decide these questions on a blank slate. Both parties agree that our decision in In re Application of the United States for an Order Directing a Provider of Electronic Communication Service to Disclose Records to the Government (In re Application) addresses the same issues presented in this appeal. In In re Application, we rejected the applicability of the third-party doctrine to CSLI, holding that the transmission of CSLI was not truly voluntary.[17] We went on to conclude, however, that the SCA's disclosure regime did not violate the Fourth Amendment because individuals lack a reasonable expectation of privacy in CSLI.[18]

         Pursuant to our Internal Operating Procedures, "the holding of a panel in a precedential opinion is binding on subsequent panels."[19] Thus, as a general matter, we remain obliged to follow our precedent absent en banc reconsideration. A narrow exception to this rule exists, however, where intervening legal developments have undercut the decisional rationale of our precedent.[20] We have described this as an exacting standard; we generally will not decline to follow our precedent unless it "no longer has any vitality"[21] or is "patently inconsistent"[22] with subsequent legal developments. Because In re Application has not been overturned by this Court sitting en banc, we will continue to follow it in its entirety unless the government demonstrates that intervening legal developments have undermined In re Application's rejection of the third-party doctrine or Goldstein can demonstrate that intervening changes in the law have created a reasonable expectation of privacy in CSLI. We conclude that neither the government nor Goldstein have met their respective burdens.


         We begin with the government's contention that individuals voluntarily convey CSLI to their cell service providers. The government attempts to sidestep In re Application by characterizing its rejection of the third-party doctrine as dictum. However, the government placed the issue of the third-party doctrine squarely before us in In re Application by arguing that the doctrine prevented CSLI from ever implicating Fourth Amendment concerns. We explicitly considered and rejected this argument, reasoning that "[a] cell phone customer has not 'voluntarily' shared his location information with a cellular provider in any meaningful way."[23] We noted, however, that § 2703(c) offers the judge the option of requiring probable cause before CSLI is released.[24] By holding that magistrate judges presented with requests for § 2703(d) orders retain discretion under § 2703(c) to "mak[e] a judgment about the possibility that such disclosure would implicate the Fourth Amendment, "[25] we necessarily rejected the third-party doctrine. Had the government been correct that CSLI records were records voluntarily disclosed to third parties, CSLI could never implicate an individual's reasonable expectation of privacy and thus would never be protected by the Fourth Amendment's warrant requirement. Thus, the rejection of the third-party doctrine was necessary to the holding of In re Application.

         The government suggests, nevertheless, that this Court "should join all of its sister circuits" in applying the third-party doctrine to CSLI, [26] apparently arguing that the subsequent decisions of other circuits may constitute intervening legal authority allowing departure from our precedent. We have never so held, and we decline to do so now. To the contrary, in declining to follow our decisions, we have recognized intervening authority only from the Supreme Court of the United States, Congress, or administrative agencies.[27] Accordingly, we continue to adhere to our view, espoused in In re Application, that the third-party doctrine does not apply because cell phone users do not voluntarily disclose CSLI to their service providers simply by signing a service contract.[28]


         We next address whether intervening changes in law undermine In re Application's holding that CSLI does not implicate an individual's reasonable expectation of privacy. Goldstein argues that the Supreme Court's subsequent decisions in Riley v. California[29] and United States v. Jones[30] render the underpinnings of In re Application untenable, and warrant a departure from our precedent. In Goldstein's view, Riley and Jones, taken together, strongly imply that an individual has a reasonable expectation of privacy in his or her aggregated movements over a period of time, particularly where cell phones are involved.

         We are not persuaded by Goldstein's readings of Riley and Jones. In Riley, the Supreme Court held that officers' warrantless search of data stored on an individual's cell phone ran afoul of the Fourth Amendment, noting that the diversity and quantity of data stored on mobile phones today created a reasonable expectation of privacy therein.[31] However, Riley focused primarily on protecting the contents of cell phones, not metadata generated from cell phone usage.[32] This distinction is far from trivial; Fourth Amendment jurisprudence has consistently protected only the contents of an individual's communications.[33] We recently emphasized this point in United States v. Stanley, [34] rejecting the argument that an individual had a reasonable expectation of privacy in his or her IP address routed through a third party's wireless router. Even though we acknowledged that obtaining an individual's IP address could roughly track his or her location, we reasoned that such records "revealed only the path of the signal establishing this connection [and] revealed nothing about the content of the data carried by that signal."[35]Riley's holding is thus an application of the Fourth Amendment's protection of content. Goldstein does not argue that the CSLI at issue here is content, nor would we find any such argument persuasive.[36] Accordingly, Riley provides little support for extending Fourth Amendment protections to historic CSLI.

         Goldstein's argument finds better support in the statements of the concurring opinions of Jones, in which the Supreme Court held that warrantless placement of a GPS tracker on an individual's car for 28 days, and the resulting aggregated movement history, violated the Fourth Amendment.[37] Although the majority rested on a trespass theory to reach this conclusion, five justices-in two separate concurrences-suggested that location tracking also implicated an individual's reasonable expectation of privacy. Justice Sotomayor, writing separately, expressed her view that the Fourth Amendment inquiry turns on "whether people reasonably expect that their movements will be recorded and aggregated in a manner that enables the Government to ascertain, more or less at will, their political and religious beliefs, sexual habits, and so on."[38] Justice Alito's concurrence, which was joined by three other justices, echoed this idea, focusing on "whether respondent's reasonable expectations of privacy were violated by the long-term monitoring of the movements of the vehicle he drove."[39]

         We do not believe that either concurrence in Jones has undercut In re Application in any meaningful way because of the different technologies at issue. Jones dealt with GPS tracking, not historic CSLI. In re Application expressly considered the differential accuracy of CSLI and GPS, holding that CSLI is less intrusive on individuals' privacy rights than GPS tracking. Jones made no suggestion that this holding was erroneous.

         Goldstein admits the inexact nature of CSLI. He concedes that the tower which transmits the signal is generally, but not always, the tower closest to the cell phone. He further concedes that a phone may change from one tower to another nearby tower during a call without the phone having moved. Because of the less precise nature of CSLI data, we are not persuaded that CSLI is sufficiently similar to GPS to warrant departure from In re Application.[40]

         Goldstein's reading of Jones suffers from another flaw; four of the five justices, who engaged in an analysis of whether individuals have a reasonable expectation of privacy in their movements, expressly limited their consideration to areas in which Congress has not provided statutory protection. Justice Alito's concurrence noted that "[i]n circumstances involving dramatic technological change, the best solution to privacy concerns may be legislative."[41] This, he explained, is because "[a] legislative body is well situated to gauge changing public attitudes, to draw detailed lines, and to balance privacy and public safety in a comprehensive way."[42] Citing to the wiretapping statute as an example, Justice Alito stated that, where Congress strikes a particular balance between digital age privacy rights and government investigative interests, "regulation . . . has been governed primarily by statute and not by case law."[43] Justice Alito expressly warned against judicial creation of new privacy interests, cautioning that "judges are apt to confuse their own expectations of privacy with those of the hypothetical reasonable person . . .."[44]

         Here, Congress has expressly weighed the privacy rights in digital information against government interest in passing the SCA.[45] Justice Alito's concurrence suggests that we should be wary of revisiting this balance that Congress has struck.[46]

         Accordingly, Goldstein's readings of Jones and Riley do not persuade us to reconsider our own precedent, nor do we see any independent reason to do so. While the rapidly evolving nature of CSLI may one day give us a reason to reconsider the distinction between GPS and CSLI, we decline to do so today. We continue to adhere to our view of In re Application: the Fourth Amendment is not violated when the government has shown "reasonable grounds to believe that the . . . records . . . are relevant and material to an ongoing criminal investigation."[47]


         Goldstein argues, in the alternative, that the government failed to meet the "reasonable grounds" standard of the SCA. As noted above, the "reasonable grounds" standard is a lesser burden than that of probable cause, and "in essence is a reasonable suspicion standard."[48] We thus look to the totality of the circumstances to determine whether the government had a "particularized and objective basis" for believing that the CSLI would assist its investigation, mindful of the fact that agents are entitled "to draw on their own experience and specialized training to make inferences from and deductions about the cumulative information available to them . . .."[49]

          In light of this threshold, we find that the government's application was more than satisfactory. The government presented information about the kidnapping ring, the charged kidnappings, and the alleged involvement of each defendant. In addition,, the government stated that another coconspirator had implicated the defendants in his statements to agents.[50] The government then explained that its request was limited to CSLI records "during the time periods when the alleged kidnappings and attempted kidnappings occurred" in order to "identify the location of the alleged participants . . .."[51] Collectively, this information provided the government with reasonable grounds to believe that the records would be relevant to their investigation.[52]

         Accordingly, we will affirm the District Court's order denying suppression of the CSLI records obtained pursuant to the SCA.


         We next turn to the arguments raised by all three defendants that various aspects of the prosecution violated RFRA. Because the motion implicates the proper scope of RFRA, we exercise plenary review.[53] RFRA proscribes government conduct which "substantially burden[s] a person's exercise of religion" unless the government can demonstrate, inter alia, that the burden is the "least restrictive means of furthering [a] compelling government interest."[54]This proscription extends to the government's criminal prosecutions under laws of general applicability; a defendant "may raise RFRA as a shield in the hopes of beating back the government's charge."[55] The party invoking RFRA bears the initial burden of making out a prima facie case by showing that (1) it possesses a sincerely held religious belief, and (2) the government's conduct substantially burdened that belief.[56]The burden then switches to the government to demonstrate that its conduct is the least restrictive means of furthering a compelling interest.[57]


         We agree with the District Court's holding that the defendants failed to satisfy their burden of establishing that the government substantially burdened their religious beliefs by prosecuting them for kidnapping. While the government's decision to prosecute the defendants undoubtedly constituted a burden on their sincerely held religious beliefs, the District Court properly analyzed whether the burden was "substantial" by looking to acceptable alternative means of religious practice that remained available to the defendants.[58] Here, none of the defendants argue that they are unable to participate in the mitzvah of liberating agunot without engaging in kidnapping; as the District Court noted, "it is unclear whether all non-violent methods were exhausted before the alleged kidnappings took place here."[59] The defendants do not challenge this determination on appeal. As the defendants have failed to demonstrate that the prosecution was a "substantial" burden, we will affirm the District Court's holding that prosecution under the federal kidnapping statute did not violate RFRA.

         Moreover, even if the defendants had demonstrated that the government's actions constituted a substantial burden on their religious exercise, we would nonetheless affirm the District Court's determination that the government has a compelling interest in uniform application of laws about violent crimes and that no other effective means of such uniformity existed. The Supreme Court has advised that the government's interest in preventing serious crimes "is both legitimate and compelling."[60] The defendants fail to cite, nor can we identify, any cases in which any court has allowed RFRA to shield individuals in the commission of violent crimes.

         Accordingly, we will affirm the District Court's denial of the motion to dismiss the indictment.


         We turn next to the argument raised only by Stimler that his joinder with Epstein and Goldstein constituted an independent RFRA violation. No court appears to have answered the question of whether RFRA imposes further limits on the government's ability to structure a prosecution. The Supreme Court has noted that RFRA requires only that an individual face "serious disciplinary action"[61] for acting on their religious beliefs. This phrase encompasses sanctions short of prosecution. However, Stimler's briefing fails to suggest that the joinder itself was any kind of sanction, nor does it suggest that the joinder caused any burden on his religious exercise; instead, it focuses entirely on whether the prosecution itself worked a unique burden on Stimler's religious practice. Thus, we need not determine the exact boundaries of RFRA here, as Stimler has not adequately alleged that joinder violated his rights under RFRA.


         All three defendants challenge the District Court's decision under Rules 402 and 403 of the Federal Rules of Evidence to bar admission of evidence about Orthodox Jewish marital law and the religious motivations for the kidnappings, arguing that such evidence was relevant to negating the specific intent required for conviction. Alternatively, the defendants argue that evidence of Orthodox Jewish laws about marital duties would be relevant to showing that the husbands consented to the kidnappings. We review a district court's exclusion of evidence for an abuse of discretion, but review de novo its interpretation of the Federal Rules of Evidence.[62]

         In relevant part, the federal kidnapping statute requires that the kidnapping be committed "for ransom or reward or otherwise . . .."[63] The District Court properly read this language as encompassing a broad set of potential motives, including the religious benefit of performing a mitzvah, while reasoning, however, "that religious motivation simply cannot negate the intent to commit a crime."[64] We agree that a religious benefit can constitute a "benefit" under the statute.

         We will also affirm the District Court's determination that the evidence of religious practices was not relevant to the affirmative defense of consent. The defendants argue that, by practicing Orthodox Judaism and signing a marriage contract, the husbands consented to any use of force authorized by any beth din. The District Court properly rejected this argument, reasoning that "[w]hile consent can be a defense to kidnapping, it has to be specific and cannot be prospective in nature."[65] The defendants do not argue that the religious evidence would demonstrate that the husbands gave specific consent to their particular kidnappings; accordingly, we agree that the religious evidence was not relevant to the affirmative defense.

         We further agree with the District Court that any marginal relevance that the religious evidence may have had was substantially outweighed by the prejudicial impact it would have had on the trial. Suggesting that the defendants acted for a religious purpose might have given rise to the potential for jury nullification, which we have held is substantially prejudicial.[66]

         Accordingly, we find no abuse of discretion in the District Court's decision under Rules 402 and 403 to exclude evidence about Orthodox Jewish marital law.


         We next turn to the argument, raised by Epstein and Goldstein, that the District Court erred in three respects in charging the jury. First, they argue that the District Court failed to include the jurisdictional element of the kidnapping offense in the conspiracy instruction. Second, they contend that the District Court erred in refusing to charge the jury that kidnapping requires the victim to be held for an appreciable period of time. Finally, the defendants claim that the District Court's instruction as to motive constituted a constructive amendment of the indictment inasmuch as it did not include the specific religious motives charged in the indictment. Because the defendants did not object in the District Court, our review is for plain error.

         A district judge's failure to instruct the jury as to a necessary element of the offense "ordinarily constitutes plain error"[67] unless the instructions as a whole make clear to the jury all necessary elements of the offense.[68] In determining whether there has been a plain error in jury instructions, we "consider the totality of the instructions . . ., not focusing on a particular paragraph in isolation."[69] Finally, even if the instructions omitted a necessary element in a way that would confuse the jury, we may nonetheless affirm if "no reasonable jury could find that the element was not present."[70]

         We see no merit in the claim that the District Court failed to make clear the interstate commerce element in instructing the jury on the conspiracy charge. While the conspiracy charge included no explicit jurisdictional requirement, it did state that the jury would have to find that the defendants conspired to engage in "kidnapping, as alleged in the indictment."[71] The parties agree that the District Court included this element in the instructions as to the substantive kidnapping counts and in the indictment. We therefore conclude that the instructions as a whole made clear that the conspiracy charge required the jury to find a conspiracy to commit a kidnapping that would cross state lines.

         We similarly decline to find error in the District Court's decision to not include a temporal element in the kidnapping instruction. Seizing on just one line in Chatwin v. United States, the defendants argue that federal kidnapping requires holding the victim "for an appreciable period."[72] We do not believe that the Supreme Court intended to create a new limit on kidnapping liability-one not found anywhere in the statutory text-in one line of dictum. Further, as the government properly notes, we have upheld jury instructions that do not refer to any temporal limit on kidnapping liability even after Chatwin.[73] Indeed, we have upheld convictions when an individual was held for mere minutes.[74] Moreover, even if we were to see merit in the defendants' assertions on this point, we would nonetheless affirm. No reasonable juror would have failed to find that the seizure, blindfolding and coercion by the defendants did not involve holding for "an appreciable period."

         Finally, the District Court did not constructively amend the indictment because, in instructing the jury, it actually did include the specific motive charged in the indictment. The defendants assert that the indictment alleged that the defendants' motive was "to threaten and coerce Jewish husbands to give gets to their wives."[75] The District Court expressly stated in its instructions that "[t]he indictment alleges the defendants had a purpose of holding the individual victims to coerce them into giving a get to the victim's wife."[76] In light of this instruction, and the entirety of the evidence produced at trial, we cannot say that there is any "substantial likelihood that the jury may have convicted the defendant for an offense differing from the offense the indictment . . . actually charged." [77]

         Accordingly, we reject the defendants' challenges to the District ...

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