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Rea v. Ford Motor Co.

decided: April 26, 1974.



Van Dusen, Hunter and Weis, Circuit Judges. Weis, Circuit Judge, Concurring and Dissenting.


VAN DUSEN, Circuit Judge.

This is an appeal from a judgment of the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania. The judgment required Ford Motor Company ("Ford") to pay damages to 22 Ford Inc. ("22 Ford"), a corporate franchised Ford dealer, in the amount of $3,350,000. for injuries claimed to have been caused by violation of the Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 1 and 2, and the Automobile Dealers' Day in Court Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1221 et seq., and to pay damages to Edward C. Rea ("Rea"), the principal stockholder of 22 Ford, in the amount of $29,683. for breach of an oral contract to convey real estate.

Ford is the second largest manufacturer of automobiles in the United States. It manufactures approximately 25% of the automobiles sold in this country, a market share that has not changed significantly during the period relevant here. With one exception -- sales to the United States Government -- Ford sells no automobiles directly to ultimate customers but, rather, sells to franchised retail dealers who then resell the automobiles to the public. At the time of trial, approximately 97% of these retail outlets were independently owned and financed. A relatively small number of the remaining 3% of the retail outlets were wholly-owned subsidiaries of Ford.*fn1 The remainder were "dealer development" outlets in which Ford and private parties share the investment, and which are established in the expectation that the private participant will acquire full ownership of the outlet out of his share of its profits.*fn2 22 Ford holds a Ford franchise in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Pittsburgh, which was originally given in February 1964 to Edward C. Rea, Inc. Thereafter the franchise was assigned to 22 Ford with Ford's permission.

The complaint in this case originally alleged seven causes of action. Prior to the trial, the district court granted Ford's motion for summary judgment on the causes of action that sought specific performance of the contract to convey real estate and to establish a lien on the real property involved. See Rea v. Ford Motor Co., 326 F. Supp. 627 (W.D. Pa. 1971), appeal dismissed (3d Cir. Nos. 71-1780/1, 1972). At the conclusion of the evidence, the district court directed a verdict for Ford on the claims alleged under the Robinson-Patman Act, 15 U.S.C. § 13(d) and (e).*fn3 The court denied defendant's motion for a directed verdict on the four remaining causes of action and submitted them to the jury with instructions to return a special verdict in the form of answers to nine questions (see Appendix to this opinion). In response to the court's questions, the jury in substance found: (1) that there was a binding oral contract between Rea and Ford for the transfer of real estate, that Ford had breached the contract, and that Rea had thereby been damaged in the amount of $29,683.; (2) that Ford had violated the Automobile Dealers' Act and that 22 Ford had thereby been damaged in the amount of $350,000.; (3) that Ford had engaged in a combination or conspiracy which unreasonably restrained interstate trade in Ford motor vehicles at the retail level in the area covered by the Pittsburgh Sales Office of Ford and had attempted to monopolize such trade, and that plaintiffs had thereby suffered damage in the amount of $1,750,000.; and (4) that Ford had not violated Section 3 of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. § 14, making it unlawful to make a sale or contract for sale of goods on condition that the purchaser shall not use or deal in goods of a competitor, where the effect is substantially to lessen competition or tend to create a monopoly in any line of commerce.

The district court denied Ford's post-trial motions for a directed verdict, or in the alternative, for a new trial, but held that the damages fixed by the jury were excessive and that a motion for a new trial would be granted unless 22 Ford filed a remittitur for all single damages in excess of $1,000,000. Rea v. Ford Motor Co., 355 F. Supp. 842 (W.D. Pa. 1973). The plaintiffs filed such remittitur and the district court amended its judgment accordingly. This appeal by Ford involves the three causes of action upon which the district court entered judgment for plaintiffs: the oral contract for the conveyance of real estate, the Automobile Dealers' Act, and the Sherman Act. We shall consider each seriatim.


In response to special interrogatories, the jury found that Ford had orally agreed to sell Rea the real estate in Monroeville upon which 22 Ford and its predecessor have conducted a Ford dealership since December 1964, that Ford failed to perform this contract, and that, as a result, Rea had been damaged in the amount of $29,683, this figure representing the cost to 22 Ford of acquiring and installing trade fixtures in the building used for the dealership. The jury found that there existed a binding oral contract between Rea and Ford, which was then owner of the land, under which Rea was to take title to the land (in his own name or in the name of a corporation formed by him) to lease the land to Ford, with a lease-back from Ford to 22 Ford, and that Ford breached such contract by failing to convey title to Rea. The jury therefore awarded to Rea as damages the cost of the improvements that he had to make in order to get the dealership service facility operating.*fn4 Although there is sufficient evidence to support the jury's finding of Ford's breach of contract, Rea is not entitled to maintain suit at this time. Under Pennsylvania law, a person who enters and makes permanent improvements on the land of another in reliance on an oral contract for the sale of the land cannot recover for their value so long as he remains in uninterrupted enjoyment of the improvements. Naftzinger v. Roth, 93 Pa. 443 (1880).*fn4a It is true that Rea, unlike the plaintiff in Naftzinger, is not legally entitled to possession of the land and improvements, for the present lessee is not Rea but 22 Ford. However, it is not necessary to "pierce the corporate veil" in order to apply the holding of Naftzinger to this case. Rea's contract with Ford, as found by the jury, specifically provided for an eventual lease-back to 22 Ford, and 22 Ford, as lessee, has had the full use and benefit of the equipment and improvements since 1964, has amortized the costs of the equipment, and has taken corresponding deductions on its income tax returns. Moreover, since it appears from the testimony that the value of the improvements was not included in the rental charge by Ford, there has not yet been any loss suffered by 22 Ford, and future losses, if any, are entirely speculative at this time.*fn5 Therefore, we conclude that Rea, "being in the enjoyment of all that came within the contract, as he stated it," Naftzinger v. Roth, 93 Pa. at 448, is not entitled to maintain suit as long as 22 Ford continues in possession and enjoyment of the improvements.*fn6 Thus that part of the district court's judgment awarding damages to Rea for violation of the oral agreement will be set aside.


In its pleadings and pre-trial statement, 22 Ford originally alleged that Ford had violated the Automobile Dealers' Day in Court Act ("Automobile Dealers' Act") by refusing to enter into a particular real estate transaction with Rea and by competing with 22 Ford through company-owned dealerships. The district court directed a verdict for Ford on these claims at the close of plaintiffs' case. At the same time, however, the court suggested sua sponte a new and different claim under the Automobile Dealers' Act which 22 Ford thereafter embraced. The gist of that new claim was that sometime between February and August 1964 Ford violated the Act by threatening to cease shipping Ford cars to 22 Ford's predecessor as a Ford dealer in Monroeville, unless a separate corporation, in which Rea was the principle stockholder, resigned its franchise as an Oldsmobile dealer in a neighboring town.*fn7 The evidence underlying that claim is as follows:

Edward C. Rea, Inc. was given a franchise as a Ford dealer in Monroeville in February 1964. The Ford Sales Agreement which established the terms and conditions of that franchise provides that "the Dealer reserves the right to make purchases from others without obligation or liability of any kind to the Company, provided that the Dealer shall not be relieved of any duty, obligation, or responsibility assumed by the Dealer under this agreement . . . ." At that time Rea was the principal stockholder in another company, then known as Rea Oldsmobile, Inc. ("Rea Olds"), which conducted an Oldsmobile dealership in Wilkinsburg. During the negotiations for the granting of the Ford franchise to Edward C. Rea, Inc., Rea represented to Ford that he would acquire the capital necessary for the operation of the Ford franchise at Monroeville by liquidating the assets of Rea Olds, and Ford required Rea to sign a letter stating his intention to give up the Oldsmobile dealership and to send a letter to Oldsmobile stating his intent to resign.

For a time in 1964 Edward C. Rea, Inc. operated in a temporary facility because a new Ford facility, whose preparation and use required a substantial amount of capital, was not yet available. Sometime between February and August 1964, before the new facility was available, Rea suggested to McClanathan, then district manager for Ford, that Rea Olds might not liquidate its operation. Rea testified that in response McClanathan threatened to stop shipping Ford automobiles to the Monroeville dealership unless Rea Olds resigned its Oldsmobile franchise. McClanathan denied making the alleged threat to withhold cars, but he did testify that he told Rea that he thought the Oldsmobile dealership should be liquidated in order to assure an adequate source of capital for the conduct of the Ford dealership in the new Monroeville facility. Thereafter Rea Olds resigned the Oldsmobile franchise, retained part of its assets, and sold the remainder to another corporation. Sometime after August 31, 1964, Rea Olds changed its name to 22 Ford, Inc., the present plaintiff, and took over operation of the Ford Monroeville dealership in its new facility. The Ford franchise agreement at Monroeville was assigned to 22 Ford on March 9, 1966, by Edward C. Rea, Inc., which was then dissolved. This assignment was accepted and consented to by Ford on April 21, 1966.

On the basis of this evidence, the jury found that Ford breached its duty "to act in good faith in performing or in complying with any of the terms or provisions of the franchise," as required by Section 2 of the Automobile Dealers' Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1222, and awarded to 22 Ford damages in the amount of $350,000., representing an estimate of the profits that Rea Olds would have made if it had continued to operate the Oldsmobile franchise.

After careful consideration and recognizing the record on the issue of liability presents a close case, we have concluded that defendant is not entitled to either the entry of judgment in its favor or a new trial to determine the question of liability on this claim. Ford challenges the jury's finding that it violated the Automobile Dealers' Act on several grounds.

First, Ford argues that since the protection of the Act is confined to the relations between the manufacturer and its dealer as supplier and distributor, respectively,*fn8 22 Ford can recover only for damages sustained by it in its capacity as a Ford dealership as a result of Ford's failure to act in good faith with respect to the operations of that dealership. However, plaintiffs produced evidence to show that the coercive statements complained of here were intended to and did cause Rea Olds to surrender its Oldsmobile franchise, and the claimed damages are those suffered by Rea Olds by that surrender; there is no suggestion that Ford's threats were designed to control or coerce the conduct of Edward C. Rea, Inc., as a Ford dealer or that they resulted in any damage to the Monroeville Ford dealership. Furthermore, although Rea Olds, after surrendering its Oldsmobile franchise and liquidating its assets, changed its name to 22 Ford and succeeded to the Ford franchise of Edward C. Rea, Inc., those transactions cannot serve to give 22 Ford a cause of action for injuries predating its affiliation with Ford.*fn9 Thus, Ford concludes, there is no basis under the Automobile Dealers' Act for the jury's finding that it is liable to 22 Ford for a breach of its duty of good faith.

The district court held, in response to this argument, that this cause of action was included in the transfer of rights under the dealership agreement to 22 Ford in April 1966 and thus 22 Ford, as the successor to the rights of Edward C. Rea, Inc. under the franchise, was entitled to bring suit and recover damages. Rea v. Ford Motor Co., 355 F. Supp. at 862-63. This analysis, however, does not entirely meet the objection raised by Ford, since it assumes one of the points in issue -- whether Edward C. Rea, Inc. could recover for the damages suffered by Rea Olds. Nevertheless, we find Ford's argument on this point does not justify its contention that it is entitled to judgment on this claim, for it is based on too narrow and technical an interpretation of who the "dealer" is under the facts of this case. Edward C. Rea was not only a signing party to the franchise agreement between Ford and Edward C. Rea, Inc., but was made essential to the operation of the dealership by its terms, which recited that Ford had entered into the agreement "in reliance (i) upon the representation and agreement that . . . [Edward C. Rea] substantially participate(s) in the ownership of the Dealer . . . and (ii) upon the representation and agreement that . . . [Edward C. Rea] shall have full managerial authority for the operating management of the Dealer in the performance of this agreement." Rea, therefore, had a cause of action under the Automobile Dealers' Act against Ford for any bad faith in coercing him, as President and principal stockholder of Rea Olds, to surrender the Oldsmobile franchise and to recover damages suffered by Rea Olds as a result of such surrender. See York Chrysler-Plymouth, Inc. v. Chrysler Credit Corp., 447 F.2d 786, 790-91 (5th Cir. 1971); Kavanaugh v. Ford Motor Co., 353 F.2d 710 (7th Cir. 1965).*fn10

Second, Ford argues that even if 22 Ford's claim is a proper one under the Act, the record contains insufficient evidentiary support for the jury's finding of a violation. Ford accepts, as it must, the jury's finding, implicit in its verdict, that McClanathan, Ford's regional manager in the Pittsburgh area, made statements to Rea that could be construed as a threat to terminate the shipment of cars to Edward C. Rea, Inc., unless Rea had Rea Olds surrender its Oldsmobile franchise. Nevertheless, Ford contends that such a threat does not constitute a breach of its duty to act in good faith since its purpose was to force Rea to honor his earlier representations to Ford that he would obtain a substantial part of the capital required for the operation of the new Ford outlet by liquidating the assets of Rea Olds, and thereby to protect Ford's lawful interest in the capital requirements of Edward C. Rea, Inc.*fn11

As defined by the Automobile Dealers' Act, the term "good faith" means

". . . the duty of each party to any franchise, and all officers, employees, or agents thereof to act in a fair and equitable manner toward each other so as to guarantee the one party freedom from coercion, intimidation, or threats of coercion or intimidation from the other party: Provided, That recommendation, endorsement, exposition, persuasion, urging or argument shall not be deemed to constitute a lack of good faith."

15 U.S.C. § 1221(e). In applying this definition, it is necessary for the finder of fact to consider not only whether one party brought pressure to bear on the other, but for what reason it did so. See York Chrysler-Plymouth, Inc. v. Chrysler Credit Corp., supra at 791. As the district court correctly instructed the jury in this case, relying on Berry Brothers Buick, Inc. v. General Motors Corp., 257 F. Supp. 542, 546 (E.D. Pa. 1966), aff'd, 377 F.2d 552 (3d Cir. 1967) (per curiam), a violation of this Act results if there is "a wrongful demand [made] which will result in sanctions if not complied with".

A manufacturer does not breach its duty to act in good faith by terminating a franchise when a dealer has failed to fulfill a reasonable obligation or agreement made in connection with the operation of the dealership. See, e.g., Garvin v. American Motor Sales Corp., 318 F.2d 518 (3d Cir. 1963); Milos v. Ford Motor Co., 317 F.2d 712 (3d Cir.), cert. denied, 375 U.S. 896, 11 L. Ed. 2d 125, 84 S. Ct. 172 (1963). And among those agreements which a manufacturer may in good faith require that a dealer carry out is the obligation to abide by reasonable net capital guidelines. See Globe Motors, Inc. v. Studebaker-Packard Corp., 328 F.2d 645 (3d Cir. 1964).

However, whether a manufacturer has acted with sufficient justification to constitute good faith in bringing pressure to bear on a dealer is a factual question the determination of which will depend on the circumstances arising in each particular case.*fn12 As the court stated in York Chrysler-Plymouth, Inc. v. Chrysler Credit Corp., supra at 791, assuming there is evidence supporting a finding of a lack of good faith, "it is up to the jury to determine the redemption value of the facts indicating that the action could have been taken in good faith." We hold that the evidence in this case, as viewed most favorably to the plaintiffs, is sufficient to support the jury's finding that Ford breached its duty to act in good faith by threatening to stop supplying cars to Edward C. Rea, Inc., unless Rea Olds resigned its Oldsmobile franchise. See Rea v. Ford Motor Co., 355 F. Supp. at 857-61. The effect of that threat was to violate the dealer's right to purchase cars from other manufacturers, which right was not only guaranteed by the franchise agreement but apparently also of particular concern to Congress when it enacted the law.*fn13 While there was also testimony that Ford's motive was to assure that its dealer met its capital guidelines by carrying out what it had earlier represented it would do, the credibility and weight to be given to that testimony in determining the issue of good faith were properly left to the jury.

Third, Ford argues that 22 Ford is not entitled to maintain this cause of action under the Act, since it did not give notice to the Chairman of the Company's Dealer Policy Board of the statements of McClanathan as required by the provision of the franchise agreement which sets up procedures for review of allegedly unfair actions by Ford or its representatives.*fn14 The district court found that there is nothing in that provision which requires a dealer to submit disputes to the Dealer Policy Board as a prerequisite to bringing suit in court for violation of the Act. Rea v. Ford Motor Co., supra at 862. We need not decide this issue on this record, since defendant does not appear to have raised this defense prior to the return of the jury verdict. However, in light of the Act's purpose,*fn15 it may be that a dealer should not be denied the opportunity to pursue his statutory cause of action because of a failure to invoke a contractual grievance procedure. See Blenke Brothers Co. v. Ford Motor Co., 217 F. Supp. 459, 464 (N.D. Ind. 1963).

Finally, Ford argues that the introduction of a new theory of liability at the close of the plaintiffs' case prejudiced Ford in its defense to the Dealers' Act claim. In particular, Ford points out that the question of whether Edward C. Rea, Inc. would have had adequate capital to carry on the Ford franchise absent the liquidation of Rea Olds did not become relevant until that time.*fn16 Thus, Ford contends, since it did not receive any pre-trial notice that this would be a decisive issue in the case, it was denied a fair opportunity to prepare and present a full showing ...

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