Before MARIS, GOODRICH, and KALODNER, Circuit Judges.
1. Federal Power Commission, called "Commission," plaintiff in the court below and appellant here.
2. Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company, called "Panhandle," defendant below and appellee here.
3. State Corporation Commission of the State of Kansas.
4. Various Interveners, shareholders of Panhandle.
5. A part with no speaking lines but referred to by all the parties: Hugoton Production Company, called "Hugoton." It is a child of Panhandle, incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. Whether the child is legitimate or not is one of the points in this litigation.
Panhandle is an interstate pipe line company which transports and sells gas to local distributors from Texas to Michigan. This gas it gets from wells in Texas, Kansas and Oklahoma. It says it has gas properties under lease which will yield some six trillion cubic feet of natural gas. In September, 1948, Panhandle organized Hugoton, transferred to it gas leases on 97,000 acres of land in Kansas, and retained an option to purchase all or part of the gas produced from that land after January 1, 1965. Hugoton, in turn, has made a contract to sell the gas produced to a distributing company in Kansas which in turn has contracted to sell it for consumption wholly within the state of Kansas. Panhandle also paid Hugoton $675,000 in cash and took back from this company all of its outstanding capital stock. Then it declared a dividend to its own shareholders, one share of Hugoton to every two-share ownership of Panhandle. Share certificates were made out, put in envelopes and made ready to mail from the office of the United States Corporation Company in New Jersey.Mailing was held up by a temporary restraining order by the District Court. That court, after hearing, refused a preliminary injunction. Plaintiff appealed. We continued the stay until the case could be heard and decided in this Court.
The Commission took its first action on October 26, 1948, when it issued an order instituting an investigation of the formation and proposed operation of Hugoton, and the transfer to it of the gas leases mentioned above. On November 10, 1948, the Commission issued a supplementary order to Panhandle and Hugoton, setting the matter down for hearing on January 24, 1949, directing the companies to show cause why the transfers of leases and stock should not be set aside, and directing maintenance of the status quo pending such determination.
The controversy here arises out of the statute known as the Natural Gas Act passed in 1938.*fn1 That statute by its first section declares that federal regulation in the matters of transportation of natural gas and the sale thereof in interstate and foreign commerce is necessary in the public interest. There is no doubt that Panhandle is transporting and selling natural gas in interstate commerce and that under section 1 of the Act such transportation and sale by the company are subject to its provisions. The last sentence of the first section of the statute, however, carves out from the subject matter to be regulated a very important exception. The words are: "* * * but shall not apply to any other transportation or sale of natural gas or to the local distribution of natural gas or to the facilities used for such distribution or to the production or gathering of natural gas." 15 U.S.C.A. § 717(b).
It would certainly seem from the first half dozen readings of these exclusionary words in the statute that Congress has pretty clearly taken out from its operation and left to state regulation*fn2 the subject matter of the Panhandle-Hugoton transaction. That subject matter was a parcel of gas leases on land in Kansas. It is pretty hard to see why such leases are not facilities used in the production of natural gas. The word "facilities" has a pretty wide meaning as one looks it up in the dictionary and a glance at the use of the term in court ...